Sunday, November 4, 2018

Ossim - OpenVAS 中漏洞扫描详解




Openvas是一套开源漏洞扫描系统,如果手动搭建需要复杂的过程,花费不少人力和时间成本,此文主要针对OSSIM平台下如何以图形化方式操作漏洞扫描的过程。

准备工作:首先确保没有运行的扫描进程和任务

扫描漏洞同时升级漏洞库会导致升级失败。



第一步同步插件
#openvas-nvt-sync

This script synchronizes an NVT collection with the 'OpenVAS NVT Feed'.
The 'OpenVAS NVT Feed' is provided by 'The OpenVAS Project'.
Online information about this feed: 'http://www.openvas.org/openvas-nvt-feed.html'.
NVT dir: /var/lib/openvas/plugins
Will use rsync
Using rsync: /usr/bin/rsync
Configured NVT rsync feed: rsync://feed.openvas.org:/nvt-feed
OpenVAS feed server - http://www.openvas.org/
This service is hosted by Intevation GmbH - http://intevation.de/
All transactions are logged.
Please report synchronization problems to [email protected].
If you have any other questions, please use the OpenVAS mailing lists
or the OpenVAS IRC chat. See http://www.openvas.org/ for details.
receiving incremental file list
deleting gb_openssl_38562.nasl.asc
deleting gb_openssl_38562.nasl
./
COPYING
         588 100%  574.22kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=13347/13355)
COPYING.GPLv2
       18002 100%   17.17MB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#2, to-check=13346/13355)
COPYING.files
     1819904 100%    1.77MB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#3, to-check=13345/13355)
DDI_Directory_Scanner.nasl
       32957 100%   32.74kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#4, to-check=13342/13355)
DDI_Directory_Scanner.nasl.asc
         198 100%    0.20kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#5, to-check=13341/13355)
... ...
同步数万个插件时间比较长,可以去喝杯咖啡啦,或者了解一下插件的组成。

            表1 Openvas主要脚本分类及分布情况


规则名称数量备注
IIS_frontpage_DOS_2.nasl1
phpbb8
RA_ssh_detect
RA_www_css
RA_www_detect
3
RHSA_2009_03**279Redhat Security Advisory
3com_switches1
weblogic*3
cisco_ids
cisco_***
ciscoworks
16
awstats4
apache23
DDI30
EZ_hotscripts3
anti_nessus1
basilix8
bluecoat1
bugbear3
bugzilla9
ca_unicenter2
cacti5
calendar3
Spoll_7_5_sql_injection2
avaya_switches1
citrix8
clamav2
CUPS12
cutenews12
checkpoint6
cheopsNG4
cvstrac24
DB24
deb_*.nasl2595Debian Linux
DNS5
deluxeBB3
eftp3
ls exchange*

exchange2
fcore684
find_service5
fortigate1
freebsd2009
ftp30
gb_CESA1528
gb_RHSA871
gb_adobe167
gb_apple70
gb_baofeng_storm3
gb_bpsoft3
gb_clamav16
gb_ccproxy2
gb_clamav16
gb_fedora4679
gb_google162
gb_hp_ux242HP-UNIX
gb_ibm_db227
gb_ibm_websphere8
gb_ibm_tivoli5
gb_ibm_was16
gb_ibm_lotus10
gb_mandriva1684
gb_java2
gb_kaspersky6
gb_google_chrome153
gb_foxmail2
gb_fsecure7
gb_ms155Windows 相关
gb_ubuntu1261
gb_samba12
gb_sun_java35
gb_wireshark87
glsa1727
gb_vmware41
IIS20
lotus5
ipswitch5
mysql5
gb_nmap187
nortel7
nagios5
openssh4
oscommerce5
postgresql5
phpgroupware12
phpmyadmin7
phpbb8
smb52
sendmail15
suse65
ssh11
smtp9
Ubuntu179
tomcat6
tftp11
wu_ftpd6


第二步更新插件
#perl /usr/share/ossim/scripts/vulnmeter/updateplugins.pl migrate
2015-09-07 07:27:33   Framework profile has been found...
2015-09-07 07:27:33   Deleting all tasks in 192.168.11.150 ...
2015-09-07 07:27:33   updateplugins: configured to not updateplugins
2015-09-07 07:27:33   updateplugins: configured to not repair DB
2015-09-07 07:27:33   BEGIN  - DUMP PLUGINS
2015-09-07 07:29:01   FINISH - DUMP PLUGINS [ Process took 88 seconds ]
2015-09-07 07:29:01   BEGIN  - IMPORT PLUGINS
2015-09-07 07:30:00   FINISH - IMPORT PLUGINS [ 40473 plugins - Process took 59 seconds ]
2015-09-07 07:30:00   BEGIN  - UPDATE CATEGORIES
2015-09-07 07:30:00   FINISH - UPDATE CATEGORIES [ Process took 0 seconds ]
2015-09-07 07:30:00   BEGIN  - UPDATE FAMILIES
2015-09-07 07:30:00   FINISH - UPDATE FAMILIES [ Process took 0 seconds ]
2015-09-07 07:30:00   BEGIN  - UPDATE OPENVAS_PLUGINS
2015-09-07 07:30:03   FINISH - UPDATE OPENVAS_PLUGINS [ Process took 3 seconds ]
2015-09-07 07:30:03   BEGIN  - UPDATE NESSUS_PREFERENCES
2015-09-07 07:30:03   show tables like "vuln_nessus_preferences_defaults"
2015-09-07 07:30:03   updateprefs: Getting plugin preferences
2015-09-07 07:30:05   FINISH - UPDATE NESSUS_PREFERENCES [ Process took 2 seconds ]

2015-09-07 07:30:06   Creating Deep profile...
2015-09-07 07:30:06   Filling categories...............
2015-09-07 07:30:06   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:06   Filling families.............................................................
2015-09-07 07:30:06   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:06   Filling plugins...
2015-09-07 07:30:13   Filling preferences in Alienvault DB...
2015-09-07 07:30:14   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:14   Deep profile inserted

2015-09-07 07:30:15   Creating Default profile...
2015-09-07 07:30:15   Filling categories...............
2015-09-07 07:30:15   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:15   Filling families.............................................................
2015-09-07 07:30:15   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:15   Filling plugins...
2015-09-07 07:30:23   Filling preferences in Alienvault DB...
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Default profile inserted

2015-09-07 07:30:24   Creating Ultimate profile...
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Filling categories...............
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Filling families.............................................................
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:24   Filling plugins...
2015-09-07 07:30:32   Filling preferences in Alienvault DB...
2015-09-07 07:30:33   Done
2015-09-07 07:30:33   Ultimate profile inserted

2015-09-07 07:30:33   BEGIN  - UPDATE PORT SCANNER
2015-09-07 07:30:35   FINISH - UPDATE PORT SCANNER [ Process took 2 seconds ]

Updating plugin_sid vulnerabilities scanner ids
plugins fetched
Updating...
Script id:94151, Name:IT-Grundschutz M4.288: Sichere Administration von VoIP-Endger?ten, Priority:0
Script id:703073, Name:Debian Security Advisory DSA 3073-1 (libgcrypt11 - security update), Priority:1
Script id:804624, Name:Adobe Reader Plugin Signature Bypass Vulnerability (Windows), Priority:2
Script id:868149, Name:Fedora Update for kernel FEDORA-2014-9959, Priority:5
Script id:95048, Name:IT-Grundschutz M5.145: Sicherer Einsatz von CUPS, Priority:0
Script id:842216, Name:Ubuntu Update for linux USN-2616-1, Priority:4
Script id:105036, Name:Open*** Detection, Priority:0
Script id:868005, Name:Fedora Update for audacious-plugins FEDORA-2014-8183, Priority:1
Script id:869350, Name:Fedora Update for springframework FEDORA-2015-6862, Priority:5

… …

Script id:105084, Name:Multiple ManageEngine Products  Arbitrary File Upload Vulnerability, Priority:3
Script id:867751, Name:Fedora Update for python-keystoneclient FEDORA-2014-5555, Priority:3
Script id:882209, Name:CentOS Update for nss CESA-2015:1185 centos6, Priority:2
Script id:842209, Name:Ubuntu Update for libmodule-signature-perl USN-2607-1, Priority:5

经过一刻钟等待终于更新完成。下面用时间轴表示每个步骤的演进顺序和所花费的时间,如下图所示。从某日的00:34:34开始到00:38:50结束的过程。


如果有些用户不习惯在CLI下操作升级命令,这一工作同样可以在WebUI中完成。




第三步验证更新

我们看到最后一行显示总数为40473,这个数值和下载的插件数量一直,代表升级完成。
第四步:开始漏洞扫描-定制策略
首先扫描资产,建立资源池,这里就不详细介绍。在OSSIM系统里默认定义了三种策略,默认为Default,该策略最为常用。


如果需要更改策略,请点击CREATE NEW PROFILE按钮。
接着开始扫描,填写任务名称,选择Sensor,选择策略,选择资源池内的主机,最后点击新建任务按钮。


扫描准备


漏洞扫描时那些进程最繁忙?
Htop是Linux系统中的一个互动的进程查看工具,该命令可以帮助管理员了解扫描发生的变化。#htop  -d 50

一次扫描多少机器合适?
如果所监控网段服务器数量超过25台,这里假设是100台,那么至少分4次扫描,例如直接输入“192.168.11.0/24”,这样表示一个网段,那么OSSIM系统负载将会明显增大,扫描等待时间明显延长,可能会长达数天,直到超过一个计划任务的周期,这样可能造成一个恶性循环,直到拖垮整个系统。

扫描结果分析


不过在分析时,谈到“过时”的漏洞问题,在一些古老些操作系统Windows NT/2000、Solaris7/8、Linux(2.2 、2.4内核)曾经存在的那些系统漏洞、网络服务器漏洞,在现代系统中已经绝迹,受影响系统已经被修复,这种漏洞变得没有任何价值。对这些系统进行漏洞扫描变得没有意义。
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